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儿童性侵预防教育,该纳入义务教育范畴|新京报专栏

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在法治深入校园的时候,可以通过检察机关和教育部门制定和编制一套适合不同年龄组和认知水平的性虐待预防教科书,并纳入他们在义务教育的范围内。

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数据地图,图形和无关,视觉中国

文|张鸿巍

最近,一些关于女孩被诽谤甚至性侵犯人民心灵的报道,强奸犯的怨恨是无法言喻的。这些案件可能只是实际发生谋杀案件的冰山一角。更多的儿童性侵犯案件可能会被淹没,甚至永远冻结。

缺乏儿童安全保护技能

犯罪学有一个重要的术语,即“黑色犯罪数量”,这是实际发生但实际上没有因各种原因而被记录的犯罪数量。黑人犯罪案件的存在并非儿童性侵犯案件所独有,但由于受害者是未成年人,因此社会更关注这一点。

目前,儿童性侵犯的模式越来越多样化和隐蔽,其作案手法越来越多样化和欺骗性。例如,在女孩的主席对女孩的情况下,对孩子犯下罪行的熟人具有欺骗性和混淆性,并且不可能阻止它。

通过梳理这些案件的细节,我们可以看到许多受害者对自身安全缺乏基本的保护意识和保护技能,相应的反措施也严重缺乏。因此,事后严格执行此类案件非常重要。但是,预防教育可能更加紧迫。特别是,义务,课程,系统和规范化儿童性侵犯预防教育的建设,运行和维护更加迫切。

一段时间以来,有关少年司法的一些悬而未决的问题有时变得非常重要,可以说是次要的,也是忙碌的。对于学校欺凌等案件,一些运动和突击治疗在短时间内解决了一定程度上的棘手问题。然而,这种头痛的后处理远远落后于社会治理的现代化。特别是对未成年人全面司法保护的客观要求。

性侵犯预防教育成为司法机构的共识

一般而言,少年司法由两部分组成:一部分是针对少年犯的司法机构,强调教育,缓刑和救赎;另一个是少年受害者受害者的少年司法,强调预防,关怀和同情。

少年司法的“司法”是特殊的,因为它与“未成年人”相结合,即强调预防,包括预防犯罪和预防受害者。在未成年人的少年司法中,儿童性侵犯案件越来越受到各界的关注,需要长期和大规模的投资,特别是在正常的预防教育中。这也符合少年司法的概念和初衷,即有效的预防教育是尽可能实现减少青少年犯罪或少年谋杀,甚至消失。

包括检察系统在内的政法部门严厉打击各类儿童性侵犯案件。 2018年10月,最高人民检察院发出了第一份起诉书第1号。该起诉书的内容涵盖了目前缺乏预防性侵犯教育的内容。

“第一号检察建议应该持续和长期!”最高人民检察院检察长张军7月4日再次强调了全面保护未成年人的重要性。 “实施到位”包括对遭受性虐待的儿童进行事后司法保护,以及预防性侵犯的事前教育。

预防性侵犯教育可能是基于课程的

Awakening children's self-care and raising parental supervision, school care, social assistance, etc. has become an indispensable part of sexual assault prevention education. Among them, continuously improving children's awareness of sexual assault prevention and cultivating their self-protection ability is the most important thing, or it can be considered coercive, curriculum, systematic, and normal.

At present, procuratorial organs at all levels actively explore the one-stop inquiry of juvenile victims, the restrictions on the employment of criminals involved in sexual assault, and the crime database against juvenile delinquents, which provide ideas and paths for further implementation of comprehensive protection for minors.

At the same time, the attorney-in-chief, deputy prosecutors and prosecutors at all levels served as vice-presidents of the rule of law in primary and secondary schools, and the rule of law courses such as the rule of law curriculum were also rolled out across the country.

At a time when the rule of law is deepening into the campus, it is possible to work through the procuratorial organs and the education authorities to develop and prepare a set of sexual abuse prevention textbooks suitable for different age groups and cognitive levels, and to include them in the scope of compulsory education.

Or in the form of curriculum, using textbooks as a carrier, through real-life case teaching, guiding and even forcing children to deeply understand the physical privacy parts and common forms and hazards of sexual abuse, especially focusing on sexual abuse prevention education more focused on actual counter-measures. If necessary, it can be supplemented with an exam to ensure that it is prevented.

□Zhang Hongjun (Professor and Doctoral Supervisor of Jinan University Youth and Family Law Research Center)

Li Bingbing Proofreading: Liu Jun

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